Mythical ancient Pompeii

The archaeological excavations of Pompeii have returned the remains of the ancient city of Pompeii, near the hill of Civita, buried under a blanket of ashes and lapilli during the eruption of Vesuvius in 79, together with Ercolano, Stabiae and Oplonti.
The excavations, initiated by the will of Charles III of Bourbon, are one of the best testimonies of Roman life, as well as the best preserved city of that era; most of the finds recovered (as well as simple furnishings of daily use including frescoes, mosaics and statues), is now preserved in the National Archaeological Museum of Naples and in small quantities in the Antiquarium of Pompeii, currently closed: just the considerable quantity of finds it was useful to understand the uses, customs, eating habits and art of life of over two millennia ago.
Pompeii was founded by Osci around the VII century BC, on a plateau formed by a lava flow, not far from the river Sarno, although several testimonies attribute the first human settlements since the IX century BC: during the Oscan period, the village, an important road junction, with roads to Cuma, Nola and Stabiae, was surrounded by walls and reached an area of 63 hectares. Pompeii was influenced by the Greeks, thanks to the conquest of Cuma in the period between 525 and 474 BC, and then by the Etruscans, under which the temple of Apollo was built; it was conquered by the Samnites, who descended from the mountains of Irpinia and used it as Nocera. It was just below the latter that Pompeii became a rich commercial city, with a small flourishing port and surrounded by mighty walls,
Conquered by the Romans in the 3rd century BC, it continued its development as a commercial city, exporting, throughout the Mediterranean, oil and wine, of which it was mainly produced in the second century BC: in recent years there was also a strong urban development , with the construction of the forum, of the temple of Jupiter, of Isis and of the Basilica, as well as numerous residential houses and villas. Under Roman rule it became first municipium, also enjoying a partial independence, thanks to the support provided during the Second Punic War and then colony, with the name of Cornelia Veneria Pompeianorum, following the conquest by Sulla in 89 BC, during social wars. The area was hit by a violent earthquake in 62 and the city suffered considerable damage, partly promptly repaired: however in 79, while some buildings were still undergoing restoration, an eruption of Vesuvius buried the city under a blanket of ashes and lapilli, erasing it entirely. In the following years, the area, arid and bare, was not subject to repopulation and despite some research carried out in the first century, was no longer found, remaining buried for almost 1700 years.

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